Amerikan Conditioning

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Amerikan Conditioning
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Image by Saint Iscariot
“If you tell a big enough lie and tell it frequently enough, it will be believed.”

“I use emotion for the many and reserve reason for the few.”

“The great strength of the totalitarian state is that it forces those who fear it to imitate it.”

“It is not truth that matters, but victory.”

“What good fortune for governments that the people do not think.”

“By the skillful and sustained use of propaganda, one can make a people see even heaven as hell or an extremely wretched life as paradise.”

“Make the lie big, make it simple, keep saying it, and eventually they will believe it. ”

“The man who has no sense of history, is like a man who has no ears or eyes”

“I do not see why man should not be as cruel as nature”

“Demoralize the enemy from within by surprise, terror, sabotage, assassination. This is the war of the future.”

“The only preventative measure one can take is to live irregularly.”

“He alone, who owns the youth, gains the future.”

“I begin with the young. We older ones are used up but my magnificent youngsters! Are there finer ones anywhere in the world? Look at all these men and boys! What material! With you and I, we can make a new world.”

“The receptivity of the masses is very limited, their intelligence is small, but their power of forgetting is enormous. In consequence of these facts, all effective propaganda must be limited to a very few points and must harp on these in slogans until the last member of the public understands what you want him to understand by your slogan.”

“The Whites have carried to these (colonial) people the worst that they could carry: the plagues of the world: materialism, fanaticism, alcoholism, and syphilis. Moreover, since what these people possessed on their own was superior to anything we could give them, they have remained themselves… The sole result of the activity of the colonizers is: they have everywhere aroused hatred.”

“The very first essential for success is a perpetually constant and regular employment of violence.”

“I believe today that my conduct is in accordance with the will of the Almighty.”

“The great masses of the people will more easily fall victims to a big lie than to a small one.”

“The most foolish mistake we could possibly make would be to permit the conquered Eastern peoples to have arms. History teaches that all conquerors who have allowed their subject races to carry arms have prepared their own downfall by doing so.”

“The application of force alone, without support based on a spiritual concept, can never bring about the destruction of an idea or arrest the propagation of it, unless one is ready and able to ruthlessly to exterminate the last upholders of that idea even to a man, and also wipe out any tradition which it may tend to leave behind.”

“Any philosophy, whether of a religious or political nature – and sometimes the dividing line is hard to determine – fights less for the negative destruction of the opposing ideology than for the positive promotion of its own. Hence its struggle is less defensive than offensive. It therefore has the advantage even in determining the goal, since this goal represents the victory of its own idea, while, conversely,it is hard to determine when the negative aim of the destruction of a hostile doctrine may be regarded as achieved and assured. For this reason alone, the philosophy’s offensive will be more systematic and also more powerful than the defensive against a philosophy, since here, too, as always, the attack and not the defence makes the decision. The fight against a spiritual power with methods of violence remains defensive, however, until the sword becomes the support,the herald and disseminator, of a new spiritual doctrine.”

“Instruction in world history in the so-called high schools is even today in a very sorry condition. Few teachers understand that the study of history can never be to learn historical dates and events by heart and recite them by rote; that what matters is not whether the child knows exactly when this battle or that was fought, when a general was born, or even when a monarch (usually a very insignificant one) came into the crown of his forefathers. No, by the living God, this is very unimportant. To ‘learn’ history means to seek and find the forces which are the causes leading to those effects which we subsequently perceive as historical events.”

Quote Source -> www.goodreads.com/author/quotes/30691.Adolf_Hitler

Volume One, Chapter Six:
"War Propaganda"

{1}The function of propaganda does not lie in the scientific training of the individual, but in calling the masses’ attention to certain facts, processes, necessities, etc., whose significance is thus for the first time placed within their field of vision.

{2}The whole art consists in doing this so skillfully that everyone will be convinced that the fact is real, the process necessary, the necessity correct, etc. But since propaganda is not and cannot be the necessity in itself, since its function. . . consists in attracting the attention of the crowd, and not in educating those who are already educated or who are striving after education and knowledge, its effect for the most part must be aimed at the emotions and only to a very limited degree at the so-called intellect. . . .

{3}The art of propaganda lies in understanding the emotional ideas of the great masses and finding, through a psychologically correct form, the way to the attention and thence to the heart of the broad masses. The fact that our bright boys do not understand this merely shows how mentally lazy and conceited they are. . . .

{4}The receptivity of the great masses is very limited, their intelligence is small, but their power of forgetting is enormous. In consequence of these facts, all effective propaganda must be limited to a very few points and must harp on these in slogans until the last member of the public understands what you want him to understand by your slogan. As soon as you sacrifice this slogan and try to be many-sided, the effect will piddle away, for the crowd can neither digest nor retain the material offered. In this way the result is weakened and in the end entirely cancelled out.

{5}Thus we see that propaganda must follow a simple line and correspondingly the basic tactics must be psychologically sound. For instance, it was absolutely wrong to make the enemy ridiculous, as the Austrian and German comic papers did. It was absolutely wrong because actual contact with an enemy soldier was bound to arouse an entirely different conviction, and the results were devastating; for now the German soldier, under the direct impression of the enemy’s resistance, felt himself swindled by his propaganda service. His desire to fight, or even to stand film, was not strengthened, but the opposite occurred. His courage flagged.

{6}By contrast, the war propaganda of the English and Americans was psychologically sound. By representing the Germans to their own people as barbarians and Huns, they prepared the individual soldier for the terrors of war, and thus helped to preserve him from disappointments. After this, the most terrible weapon that was used against him seemed only to confirm what his propagandists had told him; it likewise reinforced his faith in the truth of his government’s assertions, while on the other hand it increased his rage and hatred against the vile enemy For the cruel effects of the weapon, whose use by the enemy he now came to know, gradually came to confirm for him the ‘Hunnish’ brutality of the barbarous enemy, which he had heard all about; and it never dawned on him for a moment that his own weapons possibly, if not probably, might be even more terrible in their effects. . . .

{7}The function of propaganda is . . . not to weigh and ponder the rights of different people, but exclusively to emphasize the one right which it has set out to argue for. Its task is not to make an objective study of the truth, in so far as it favors the enemy, and then set it before the masses with academic fairness; its task is to serve our own right, always and unflinchingly.

{8}It was absolutely wrong to discuss war-guilt from the standpoint that Germany alone could not be held responsible for the outbreak of the catastrophe; it would have been correct to load every bit of the blame on the shoulders of the enemy, even if this had not really corresponded to the true facts, as it actually did. . . .

Volume One, Chapter Ten:
"Causes of the Collapse"

{9}The easiest and hence most widespread explanation of the present misfortune is that it was brought about by the consequences of the lost War and that therefore the War is the cause of the present evil.

{10}There may be many who will seriously believe this nonsense but there are still more from whose mouth such an explanation can only be a lie and conscious falsehood. . . . Didn’t these apostles of world conciliation . . . . glorify the benevolence of the Entente, and didn’t they shove full blame for the whole bloody struggle on Germany? . . . Will you claim that this was not so, you wretched, lying scoundrels?

Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf (1926) -> history.hanover.edu/courses/excerpts/111hitler.html

Revolutionary Castro
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Image by Saint Iscariot
"They talk about the failure of socialism but where is the success of capitalism in Africa, Asia and Latin America?"

"Condemn me, it does not matter: history will absolve me."

"Men do not shape destiny. Destiny produces the man for the hour."

"I feel my belief in sacrifice and struggle getting stronger. I despise the kind of existence that clings to the miserly trifles of comfort and self-interest."

"Warfare is a means and not an end. Warfare is a tool of revolutionaries. The important thing is the revolution! The important thing is the revolutionary cause, revolutionary ideas, revolutionary objectives, revolutionary sentiments, revolutionary virtues!"

"We have a theoretical concept of the Revolution which is a dictatorship of the exploited against the exploiters."

“…quality of life lies in knowledge, in culture. Values are what constitute true quality of life, the supreme quality of life, even above food, shelter and clothing.”

"With what moral authority can they speak of human rights — the rulers of a nation in which the millionaire and beggar coexist; the Indian is exterminated; the black man is discriminated against; the woman is prostituted; and the great masses of Chicanos, Puerto Ricans, and Latin Americans are scorned, exploited, and humiliated? How can they do this — the bosses of an empire where the mafia, gambling, and child prostitution are imposed; where the CIA organizes plans of global subversion and espionage, and the Pentagon creates neutron bombs capable of preserving material assets and wiping out human beings; an empire that supports reaction and counter-revolution all over the world; that protects and promotes the exploitation by monopolies of the wealth and the human resources of whole continents, unequal exchange, a protectionist policy, an incredible waste of natural resources, and a system of hunger for the world?"

"Las ideas no necesitan ni de las armas, en la medida en que sean capaces de conquistar a las grandes masas. (Ideas do not need weapons, to the extent that they can convince the great masses.)"

"Fellow workers and peasants, this is the socialist and democratic revolution of the working people, with the working people, and for the working people. And for this revolution of the working people, by the working people, and for the working people we are prepared to give our lives."

"Weapons for what? (¿Armas, para qué?) To fight against whom? Against the revolutionary government, that has the support of the whole people? … Weapons for what? Hiding weapons for what? To blackmail the President of the Republic? To threaten to break the peace here? To create organizations of gangsters? Is it that we are going to return to gangsterism? Is it that we will return to daily shootouts in the capital? Weapons for what?"

“Es que, cuando los hombres llevan en la mente un mismo ideal, nada puede incomunicarlos, ni las paredes de una cárcel, ni la tierra de los cementerios, porque un mismo recuerdo, una misma alma, una misma idea, una misma conciencia y dignidad los alienta a todos.”

“The solutions put forth by imperialism are the quintessence of simplicity…When they speak of the problems of population and birth, they are in no way moved by concepts related to the interests of the family or of society…Just when science and technology are making incredible advances in all fields, they resort to technology to suppress revolutions and ask the help of science to prevent population growth. In short, the peoples are not to make revolutions, and women are not to give birth. This sums up the philosophy of imperialism.”

"As I have said before, the ever more sophisticated weapons piling up in the arsenals of the wealthiest and the mightiest can kill the illiterate, the ill, the poor and the hungry but they cannot kill ignorance, illnesses, poverty or hunger."

"The revolution has no time for elections. There is no more democratic government in Latin America than the revolutionary government. … If Mr. Kennedy does not like Socialism, we do not like imperialism. We do not like capitalism"

"There is often talk of human rights, but it is also necessary to talk of the rights of humanity. Why should some people walk barefoot, so that others can travel in luxurious cars? Why should some live for thirty-five years, so that others can live for seventy years? Why should some be miserably poor, so that others can be hugely rich? I speak on behalf of the children in the world who do not have a piece of bread. I speak on the behalf of the sick who have no medicine, of those whose rights to life and human dignity have been denied."

“I will not speak of him as if he were absent, he has not been and he will never be. These are not mere words of consolation. Only those of us who feel it truly and permanently in the depths of our souls can comprehend this. Physical life is ephemeral, it passes inexorably… This truth should be taught to every human being — that the immortal values of the spirit are above physical life. What sense does life have without these values? What then is it to live? Those who understand this and generously sacrifice their physical life for the sake of good and justice — how can they die? God is the supreme idea of goodness and justice.”

"We do not have a smidgen of capitalism or neo-liberalism. We are facing a world completely ruled by neo-liberalism and capitalism. This does not mean that we are going to surrender. It means that we have to adopt to the reality of that world. That is what we are doing, with great equanimity, without giving up our ideals, our goals. I ask you to have trust in what the government and party are doing. They are defending, to the last atom, socialist ideas, principles and goals."

"Marxism taught me what society was. I was like a blindfolded man in a forest, who doesn’t even know where north or south is. If you don’t eventually come to truly understand the history of the class struggle, or at least have a clear idea that society is divided between the rich and the poor, and that some people subjugate and exploit other people, you’re lost in a forest, not knowing anything."

"I would honestly love to revolutionize this country from one end to the other! I am sure this would bring happiness to the Cuban people. I would not be stopped by the hatred and ill will of a few thousand people, including some of my relatives, half the people I know, two-thirds of my fellow professionals, and four-fifths of my ex-schoolmates."

"I joined the people; I grabbed a rifle in a police station that collapsed when it was rushed by a crowd. I witnessed the spectacle of a totally spontaneous revolution… [T]hat experience led me to identify myself even more with the cause of the people. My still incipient Marxist ideas had nothing to do with our conduct – it was a spontaneous reaction on our part, as young people with Martí-an, anti-imperialist, anti-colonialist and pro-democratic ideas."

"In a few hours you will be victorious or defeated, but regardless of the outcome – listen well, friends – this Movement will triumph. If you win tomorrow, the aspirations of Martí will be fulfilled sooner. If we fail, our action will nevertheless set an example for the Cuban people, and from the people will arise fresh new men willing to die for Cuba. They will pick up our banner and move forward… The people will back us in Oriente and in the whole island. As in ’68 and ’92, here in Oriente we will give the first cry of Liberty or Death!"

"The story of our beards is very simple: it arose out of the difficult conditions we were living and fighting under as guerrillas. We didn’t have any razor blades… everybody just let their beards and hair grow, and that turned into a kind of badge of identity. For the campesinos and everybody else, for the press, for the reporters we were "los barbudos" – the bearded ones. It had its positive side: in order for a spy to infiltrate us, he had to start preparing months ahead of time – he’d have had to have six-months’ growth of beard, you see… Later, with the triumph of the Revolution, we kept our beards to preserve the symbolism."

"When I saw the [U.S. supplied] rockets being fired at Mario’s house, I swore to myself that the Americans would pay dearly for what they are doing. When this war is over a much wider and bigger war will begin for me: the war that I am going to wage against them. I know that this is my real destiny."

"When I was a young boy, my father taught me that to be a good Catholic, I had to confess at church if I ever had impure thoughts about a girl. That very evening, I had to rush to confess my sin. And the next night, and the next. After a week, I decided religion wasn’t for me."

"I propose the immediate launching of a nuclear strike on the United States. The Cuban people are prepared to sacrifice themselves for the cause of the destruction of imperialism and the victory of world revolution."

"We are not executing innocent people or political opponents. We are executing murderers and they deserve it." [Castro’s response to his critics regarding the mass executions, 1959.]
"Until Castro, the U.S. was so overwhelmingly influential in Cuba that the American ambassador was the second most important man, sometimes even more important than the Cuban president." [Earl T. Smith, former American Ambassador to Cuba, during 1960 testimony to the U.S. Senate]
"The Alliance for Progress is an alliance between one millionaire and many beggars."

"This country … abounds in that Cuba is a heaven in the spiritual sense of the word, and we prefer to die in heaven than serve in hell."

•• en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fidel_Castro
•• www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/castro/
•• en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Fidel_Castro
•• www.goodreads.com/author/quotes/66099.Fidel_Castro
•• www.cuba.cu/gobierno/discursos/1961/esp/f020161e.html
•• en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alliance_for_Progress#Controversies

•• lanic.utexas.edu/la/cb/cuba/castro.html
•• www.counterpunch.org/2007/04/07/where-have-all-the-bees-g…

The history of policing Bristol
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Image by brizzle born and bred
JUNE 25, 1836 saw the birth of Bristol Constabulary, a direct result of the Reform Bill riots which had devastated the city ?ve years earlier. Horri?ed at the ease with which the destruction and looting had spread, the government passed the 1835 Municipal Corporations Act, ordering boroughs throughout England and Wales to appoint a paid, professional police force governed by a locally-elected committee.

The ?rst task of the committee, the forerunner of the old Watch Committee, was to ?nd a man with the experience and ability to organise and command the new 232-strong force.

Joseph Bishop

Joseph Bishop, a superintendent in the Metropolitan Police Force, formed seven years earlier, was appointed ‘Superintendent of Police’ at a salary of £350 a year. The new police chief set out to inspect the city, the slums of St. Philips, the dignified crescents of Clifton, the narrow, cobbled city streets where all classes rubbed shoulders and the shanty town of Bedminster, where men dug coal by day and drank at night.

He recommended dividing the city into four areas, each with its own police station.

The old city Guardhouse, the only suitable building in existence at the time, was altered and other accommodation rented while the rest were built at Bedminster Causeway, Brandon Hill and St. Philips. The Brandon Hill Station, which closed in March 1967, is the only one of the original four buildings to survive.

Widespread publicity attracted 567 applicants, many of them skilled workers such as painters, masons and carpenters, for the vacant posts.

Bristol was almost a century ahead of many forces by setting a written examination for the potential recruits in addition to a medical examination and character enquiry.

The successful men were issued with their uniforms of a top hat, blue swallow-tailed coat, white dress trousers, cape, great coat, boots, boot brushes and rattle. Back at the Guardhouse 50 cutlasses and 24 pairs of handcuffs were ready in case of trouble.

The only weapon a policeman carried was a wooden truncheon contained in a leather case hidden under the long tails of his coat. In time, a looped leather strap was attached to the handle to prevent it being snatched out of the officers grasp.

Instruction book

Meanwhile, Mr. Bishop had prepared an instruction book for the inspectors, sergeants and constables under his command. The 53-page book contained the essence of the principles which have governed police forces down to the present day.

To quote Mr. Bishop: "The principal object of the police establishment is the prevention of crime. To this great end every effort is to be directed; the security of persons and property, and the preservation of public tranquility and of good order in the Borough, will be better effected than by the detection and punishment of offenders after they have succeeded in violating the laws."

The ‘Occurrence Book’ showed that police work has altered in amount rather than the kind.

Dogs were lost and found, robberies and thefts reported and detected, the new officers were assaulted by drunks and a large number of Bristolians were pulled out of the floating harbour , a direct result of an open waterfront and a proliferation of pubs.

a policeman’s lot was not a happy one

The life was hard and, for many, a policeman’s lot was not a happy one. Within the ?rst six weeks 13 of the new of?cers resigned and a further 13 were dismissed. Each man worked a seven day week in 10 to 12 hour shifts, tramping up to 20 miles a day. Rest days were rare, and the men were lucky to have one day off every four to six weeks.

The minimum wage of £49 8s a year

By 1866 the force had grown to 296 men to whom the job offered security, respectability, an opportunity for self-improvement and a pension. The minimum wage of £49 8s a year compared favourably with the average working man’s income of £44 4s. The public, mistrustful at ?rst of the new police, slowly became accustomed to seeing the tall, top-hatted men parading through the city’s streets.

Only a small percentage of police time during the 19th century was devoted to dealing with crime. Victorian officers acted as ?remen, ambulancemen and later food and drug inspectors. The need for specialist departments requiring extra skills led to the formation of a detective branch and a river section responsible for policing the city’s docks and waterways.

In 1876 Bristol policemen were given the right to a day off once a month in addition to seven days holiday a year, but it was not until 1910, when Winston Churchill was Home Secretary, that police were allowed one day off each week.

The outbreak of the First World War in August 1914 and the loss of 266 men who volunteered for service left the 617-strong force so depleted it was necessary to call the Special Constabulary to active duty. As more men fell in battle, frantic measures were taken to ?ll the thinning ranks, ?rst with the employment of ‘lady clerks’ and then with policewomen. The demand for manpower during the Great War forced up wages and prices to three times the 1914 levels at which police pay was pegged and all was not well within the force.

A special act of parliament prevented police of?cers from taking the better-paid jobs which abounded in industry. In 1918 London’s policemen walked out in an effort to obtain better pay and a reformation of their force which would include the recognition of their unofficial ‘Police Union’.

Their action led to the Desborough Committee of Inquiry and promises of better and fairer pay and pensions, but the promises were not implemented until after a second strike by of?cers at Merseyside and Birmingham.

The ?rst part of the committee’s report recommended pay increases far higher than anyone had dared hope, in many cases doubling wages. The resulting Police Act of 1919 prohibited police from taking strike action or joining a union but provided for the establishment of the Police Federation, created the Police Council as a consultative body and placed pay and conditions under the control of the Home Secretary.

Trinity Road station was adapted as a training school

The training of recruits, previously lectures on the geography of Bristol, visits to the police court and watching more experienced of?cers, was put on a formal basis in 1920. The superintendent’s house at Trinity Road station was adapted as a training school and a full-time training instructor appointed. During their period of probation recruits were expected to pass examinations in police duties, swimming, life-saving and ?rst aid.

The Central Police Station

As the 1920s wore on it became apparent that the Bridewell Street premises, basically unaltered since 1844, were no longer suitable and architects throughout Britain were invited to enter a contest to design the new headquarters. The winning plans submitted by a Cardiff partnership, were approved in 1924 and work on the £127,000 scheme began two years later. The Central Police Station was finished in 1928, and the rest of the building was officially opened in November 1930. No more new building took place until the late 1950s and 1960s.

The chief constable’s car was the only motor vehicle in the force

The chief constable’s car was the only motor vehicle in the force in 1920 but as the 20th century rolled on horsepower gave way to the internal combustion engine. One of the greatest changes came in 1931 with the institution of motor patrols to enforce the Road Traffic Act 1930. For many it led to a fundamental change for the worse in relationships between the public and the police.

Communications

As transport improved so did communications with the introduction of police telephone pillars in 1932, the 999 system in 1946 and personal radios, still the backbone of modern police communications, in 1968.

War Preparations

The 1930s saw the centenary of the Bristol Constabulary and the creation of many familiar police activities including road safety instruction in schools and uniformed school crossing patrols. The threat of a second world war brought a mass of emergency legislation, placing much of the responsibility for war preparations directly on the police. With the collapse of France in the summer of 1940 Bristol, now within reach of German fighter aircraft, moved into the front line. By the time peace was declared in August 1945, 89,080 homes and businesses in the city had been damaged or destroyed and 4,604 civilians killed or wounded.

The ?rst full year of peace saw the authorised establishment of the force increased from 679 to 814 to cope with the vast increase in the amount of legislation combined with rocketing crime statistics. Apart from the growth in CID and the Road Traffic Department other services had developed including the South Western Forensic Science Laboratory, the Fingerprint Branch, Special Branch, Lost Property Of?ce, Photographic Department and Explosives, Petroleum and Hackney Carriage Department.

1940s

In 1948 the ?rst burglar alarm in the west of England connected direct to police by telephone was installed in Bristol. An advertisement in the Evening Post in May 1948 offered recruits a wage of £5 5s a week, one day off in seven and 18 days leave, in addition to public holidays. The expected flood of applicants failed to materialise, £5 5s was not good pay in 1948 and one day off in seven was little inducement with a ?ve day week elsewhere. The height limit was reduced from 5ft 10ins to 5ft 9ins but manpower de?ciency remained a problem for many years.

1950s

The 1950s heralded a period of development and expansion. The new River Police Station at The Grove opened in 1955 and was followed by a series of modern police stations at Knowle, Bishopsworth and Lockleaze. In 1967 the New Bridewell annexe with its communications centre equipped with the latest in modern technology was of?cially opened on the site of the Old Bridewell prison destroyed in the riots of 1831.

In 1976 the force acquired the former headquarters of a building company along with a neighbouring house in Southmead Road, Bristol, which were converted into a new divisional headquarters for north east Bristol. The last of the new Bristol police stations, Trinity Road, was opened in 1979.

Crime prevention

A full-time Crime Prevention Department was set up in 1963 giving fresh impetus to Mr. Bishop’s 1836 concept. In 1966 Bristol became the ?rst force to set up a Crime Prevention Panel where businessmen, residents and insurance company representatives help police to initiate and implement new crime prevention projects.

The department again broke new ground in 1969 by appointing an architect liaison officer to provide expert advice to planners, architects and developers on how to build crime prevention measures into new houses and developments and avoid design features which could encourage crime.

The Police Act 1964 replaced the old Watch Committees with Police Authorities made up of councillors and magistrates with the task of maintaining an ‘adequate and efficient force’, properly housed and equipped and the responsibility for appointing, and if necessary removing, the chief constable.

moves to reduce the number of police forces in England and Wales

Two years later the Home Secretary announced moves to reduce the number of police forces in England and Wales. On April 1, 1974 the Bristol Constabulary, the Somerset and Bath Constabulary and the Staple Hill division of the Gloucestershire force were amalgamated to form a new Avon and Somerset Constabulary under chief constable Kenneth Steele, OBE, KPM, head of the Somerset and Bath force since 1967. The Bristol Constabulary had grown from a force of 232 men to 1,1 73 men and 74 women policing 693 miles of streets.

Police National Computer

The battle against crime gained an important ally the same year when the Police National Computer at Hendon in north London became operative, giving of?cers immediate access to central records including information on stolen or suspect vehicles and wanted and missing persons.

1970s

Bristol police gave their backing to a Victims Support Scheme, a pioneering venture launched in 1974 by the Bristol Association for the Care and Resettlement of Offenders, which offered care, support and advice to victims of crime, serious accident and house ?res. During the ?rst ?ve weeks 155 cases were reported to the volunteers who lent a
sympathetic ear along with practical advice on insurance and criminal injury claims.

An average of 128 cases a week are now reported to the BVSS. The success of the scheme prompted numerous enquiries and projects based on the Bristol scheme are now operating throughout Britain and in other parts of the world.

The Sex Discrimination Act 1975, brought major changes for the force’s policewomen.

Policewomens’ departments at headquarters and on divisions ceased to exist, women of?cers were allocated to round-the-clock operational shifts and arrangements to ‘call out’ off-duty women of?cers to handle specialist duties such as child neglect and sexual abuse were abolished. Avon and Somerset in common with many other forces encountered problems in dealing with the specialist work previously handled by the women and policewomens’ units were re-created in April 1978.

Meanwhile deep concern was being voiced at the continual rise in crime, road accidents and drug abuse at a time when the new force, which started life with 317 vacancies, was facing grave dif?culties in both attracting and retaining suitable men and women.

In 1977 a new recruit earned £2,775, far less than virtually every other skilled worker.

By 1978 almost half the police constables in the force had less than six years experience.

A committee under Lord Edmund-Davies was formed to probe police pay levels and recommended increases of more than 40 per cent for senior and longer serving of?cers and set a new starting salary of £4,086 for probationers.

Pay boost

The pay boost, combined with the recession the in industry and rising unemployment meant there was now no shortage of well-quali?ed applicants and 1981 saw the force up to strength for the ?rst time since 1974. One disappointment was the failure to attract suf?cient numbers of men and women with the necessary quali?cations from ethnic
minority groups, a problem which still persists today.

Violence

A worrying trend towards violence combined with an escalation of assaults on police led to a warning from chief constable Kenneth Steele that the increase in woundings, assaults and criminal damage was a problem for the community and not just the police. The depressing toll of road accidents and deaths led to a fresh emphasis on teaching road safety to young drivers and cyclists. "

The launch of Crime Prevention Year in March 1978 hammered home the message that
crime was a problem for.the public as well as the police and residents should take positive steps to protect themselves and their property. The timely message paid dividends. During the campaign house burglaries fell by nearly 12 per cent and thefts from vehicles by nearly 15 per cent.

Community policing

A major change in policing, and underlining the need for of?cers to forge and maintain links with the communities they serve, came in 1982 with a reduction in the number of mobile patrols and an increase in the number of of?cers on foot patrol.

Community involvement units, responsible for fostering contacts with ethnic minority groups and co-ordinating all community based activities such as community relations, crime and accident prevention and schools liaison, were established on each division.

The new importance of the beat bobby led to the demise of the panda cars and whilst sufficient vehicles were kept to respond to emergency calls, calls not requiring immediate attention were passed to the local beat of?cer to handle. A far cry from the days when of?cers were warned:

“Police should not, under any circumstances, enter into idle conversation when on duty, especially with people with whom they are not personally,acquainted. Many cases are on record of burglaries and other serious offences having been committed by thieves, whilst a confederate was engaging the attention of a thoughtless constable by idle and frivolous talk.”

Police Liaison Committees

The 1981 riots in Brixton prompted Lord Scarman’s famous report into Britain’s urban and racial problems.

After piecing together evidence about the disorders in Brixton and elsewhere he stressed the need for greater involvement of blacks in the police force, a new disciplinary offence of racially-prejudiced behaviour and called for rigorous race and community relations training to enable of?cers to meet the needs of policing a multi- racial society.

As a result of the Scarman recommendations Police Liaison Committees similar to one already operating in the St. Pauls area following the 1980 riots, were introduced throughout Britain, providing a forum for community leaders and police to meet regularly to discuss policing policies and problems in their particular area.

Meanwhile the cold wind of the recession was forcing financial restrictions on the force at a time of increasing public disorder, violence and crime combined with the very real problem of policing the 1980s from an unrealistic and outdated headquarters.

With insufficient funding to maintain the force at its full strength the chief constable was forced to suspend recruiting in Iuly 1985 to remain within budget.

Fresh impetus was given to a programme of civilianising a number of indoor posts, previously held by police of?cers which did not need police training and experience, in order to release trained men and women from administrative work and return them to operational duties.

Residents in Kingsdown joined the front line in the battle against crime in 1983 with the launch of a neighbourhood watch scheme. Residents in 2,000 homes in Kingsdown and Cotham were encouraged to report anything at all suspicious to local volunteers who in turn contacted the police.

The project, one of the ?rst in Britain, created national interest with more than 40 other forces requesting details. In the ?rst two years of the scheme’s operation crime in the area fell by four per cent despite an increase of 16 per cent elsewhere in Avon and Somerset.

Similar schemes are now operating throughout the city.

Financial restraints ended the cadet scheme in 1984 when the force took on a continuing role in combating youth unemployment by taking on 50 jobless youngsters under the Youth Training Scheme, 40 of whom found permanent jobs.

The miners’ dispute of 1984 and 1985 saw the ‘thin blue line’ stretched almost to breaking point with of?cers from Bristol sent to help other forces policing mining areas.

Nearly all training courses were cancelled, non-operational of?cers were returned to normal police duties to take over the work of absent colleagues and in some areas men and women found themselves working the 12 hour shifts of their predecessors.

In 1985 the force training department faced one of its greatest challenges in preparing the entire force for the inception of the Police and Criminal Evidence Act, the most comprehensive piece of legislation governing police powers and procedures since the establishment of professional police. A massive 7,500 man days were spent on training.

The force enters a future which is uncertain. Resources are limited, crime is escalating and the pressures on of?cers grow yearly.

As Bristol’s ?rst police chief declared over 170 years ago: “The absence of crime will be considered the best proof of the complete efficiency of the force.” That goal can only be achieved with the help and support of every citizen.

Bristol has good reason to be proud of the men and women, who, over the years, have risked injury and even death to protect its citizens.

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One Response to “Amerikan Conditioning”

  1. ZeppelinJugend 611

    ..remove the very foundation of the 3rd Reich’s "National Socialism", the whole ‘master-race’ idea, pure Aryan blood bullshit & what would be left & functioning very smoothly…for EVERY & ANYone is ‘fair-game’ next time around.
    It’s like, WHEN is humanity going to evolve enough to no longer need ‘law enforcement’??
    Meanwhile, as we provide a sort of ‘surface entertainment’ to the Mighty & Terrible OZ..it ponders our future…we’re no longer offering them blood sacrifices as we had for centuries, now we have "A 1000 Ways To Die" network show of people dying of the weirdess situations..absolutely unbelieveable freak fatal ‘accidents’…oh yeah, they will get their fill of human blood one way or another. Throughout history military leaders touring the battlefield aftermath said they distinctly felt a ‘presence’ that was feeding or absorbing the death and pain, the spilled blood…enjoyment over it all…satisfacton..Nothing has ever been seen, but it’s sure as hell been felt upon batteleftelds by highly creditable individuals of the world’s military elite. "Freak fatal accidents" might be considerably freakier than imagined…especially when a punk ET is involved.